What Causes Skin Cancer?
Skin cancer is the most common cancer in Northern Ireland and is caused by overexposure to UV (ultraviolet) light. Sunlight and sunbeds are the main sources of UV.
What is UV?
Ultraviolet radiation given out by the sun is made up of three wavelengths – UVA, UVB and UVC. UVC is absorbed by the ozone layer and doesn’t reach the earth’s surface. UVA and UVB are the rays that cause damage our skin and both can cause tanning, burning, ageing, wrinkling and skin cancer.
- UVB is responsible for the majority of sunburns. Its intensity varies by season, location and time of day. The highest levels of UVB usually reach us between 11am and 3pm from April to September.
- UVA penetrates deeper into the skin. It ages the skin, but contributes much less towards sunburn. UVA rays are present all year round and can penetrate glass and clouds, so we are exposed to large doses over our lifetime.
- Short term effects: Skin exposed to UV rays can give you freckles and rashes. Too much short-term exposure causes sunburn – reddening, pain and in severe cases blistering and even second degree burns.
- Long term effects: Over time UV rays exposure, whether or not you get sunburned, speeds up ageing making your skin dry, wrinkled, loose and dull and causing pigment changes commonly known as age spots. It can also cause changes in the skin cells, which may lead to skin cancer.
Factors affecting the intensity of UV radiation from the sun
- Position of the sun – the higher in the sky the higher the UV level – midday is usually when they are at max levels
- The time of year – UV levels peak in summer in Northern Ireland
- Latitude – UV levels are higher closer to the equator
- Cloud cover – heavy clouds significantly cut UV but thin cloud offers little or no protection
- Altitude – at higher altitudes the thinner atmosphere filters less UV radiation
- Ozone level – certain pollutants are gradually eroding the earth’s protective shield, known as the ozone layer, therefore higher levels of UV radiation are now reaching the earth. Ozone levels vary throughout the year
- Cool bright days, even with light cloud, can have damaging levels of UV radiation
- Remember, UV Levels are NOT related to temperature
Sunbeds and lamps can be more dangerous than natural sunlight, because they use a concentrated source of UV radiation. Modern sunbeds are capable of producing irradiation similar to Mediterranean sunlight at midday in August. Find out more about sunbed risks.
CARE IN THE SUN
Anyone can develop skin cancer, whatever their skin colour. However, certain skin types are more at risk from the effects of UV radiation than others.
Too much ultraviolet (UV) light, either from natural sunlight or from artificial sources such as sunbeds, is the main cause of 80% of skin cancers.
Sunbeds, tanning booths and lamps give out harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays that damage your skin and can make it look wrinkled, older or leathery.